Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi.
Post Graduate Diploma in
Participatory Management of Displacement, Resettlement & Rehabilitation (PGDMRR)

MRR-005: Theoretical Perspectives on R&R

MRR-005: Theoretical Perspectives on R&R

Theoretical knowledge helps us to answer the 'whats' and 'whys' of situation and events. It aids the practitioners of R&R in taking confident steps from the position of what and why to how and when of a case of displacement. Therefore, after learning the basic issues of development caused displacement and its magnitude and dimensions along with the concept of participation and the application of its tools and techniques in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) through the first four courses (MRR-101 to 104), now it is essential to have the theoretical understanding of the study of displacement, resettlement and rehabilitation. Such an understanding would promote the practical planning of involuntary resettlement more effectively. This would enable the field practitioners of R&R to make an informed plan of action. An attempt to solve any problem only by having mere information about the situation rather than a theoretical knowledge based understanding of the issues may create another set of problems.
a) Block 15 is an Overview of Global Research in Involuntary Resettlement. It deals with the history of policies on resettlement. It divides the whole history into different tracks and addresses it as in-house World Bank track, International track, National track and Private track. The equator principles and their relationship with forced resettlement are also discussed here. History of research from 1960s to 1990s is also discusses in the Block. It explains pioneering studies on involuntary Resettlement (IR). It also discusses how- the winds of change arrived through the World Bank policy. Social research on nature of displacement; which include Scudder – Colson Theory, IRR model and Rights and Risks approach are also explained in this Block. It also discusses recent research on R&R, the mutually contested views and the approach of the planners is also touched in this Unit.
b) Block 16 on Theoretical Perspectives focuses on different perspectives on displacement and development. Stating with sociological perspective, it discusses anthropological, political, economic and psychological perspectives and the displacement and development. The argument however is to follow a holistic approach' to be adopted for dealing with the issue of displacement and development. Politics of development explains the definition of development followed by various theories development. Theories like functionalist theory, dependency theory, world system theory and also imperialism as a cause of unequal development have been discussed here. The concepts of risk in displacement gives us a model of Risks and Risks avoidance. The four basic function of the model are explored. It follows in the end the basic process of livelihood reconstruction, which is risk reversals and component of reconstruction. Social exclusion theory explains a broader view of the concept of social exclusion. It also discusses internal distinctions in social exclusion and its relationship with displacement and development. Theory of social justice as given by John Rawls gives basic principles of social justice. It argues for a trade-off between efficiency with distributive justice while formulating policies and explains how theory of justice can be a guiding principle of displacement and resettlement.
c) Block 17 on Theoretical Methods and Approaches discusses action approach including Cernea's Model. Starting with an overview of R&R Policy in India, it explains the differential impacts and adjusted solutions. It also elaborates on the strengths and weaknesses of the model. While giving a cursory view of the Rights approach as an alternative action approach; the Unit also explain the use of IRR model in the practice. Situational analysis or the extended case method covers the concepts of situational analysis; the factors of situational analysis; scope and biases in situational analysis. Cost-benefit analysis including societal cost covers the methodology of CBA, which includes technoserve method for cost benefit analysis; the cost effectiveness ratio; the non-quantifiable benefits rating, strengths and weaknesses of CBA and uses of CBA. Class impact analysis in R&R contents starts with the problems of technocentric approach and goes on to discuss concept of class, class impact analysis (CIA) and its relevance and uses in R&R.
d) Block 18 on Role of Institutional Mechanism is about various institutional mechanisms that have an impact on R&R operations. Whether it is policy at national, state or enterprise level or judiciary or social capital or International agencies all of these institutions and institutional factors influence the R&R processes in an economy or country. It enlists the definition, concept and types of institutional mechanism available for affective R&R. Political process and public policy discusses NPRR 2003 and SWOT analysis of the NPRR as a public policy document. Judiciary and legal activism explain judicial activism and the role of the state. It gives definitions of the public purpose and the eminent domain. It also delves into the progressive view of the court and the controversy regarding judgment on the Sardar Sarovar project. Social capital issues argue for social cohesion and participation. It defines the concept of social capital and also explains the international agencies is also explained in the block. It discusses The World Bank policy, Asian Development Bank policy and International Finance Corporation policy and also explains their role in issuing rule and regulations.
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© 2011 Pravin Kolhe
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