Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi.
Post Graduate Diploma in
Participatory Management of Displacement, Resettlement & Rehabilitation (PGDMRR)

MRR-101:Understanding Development-Caused Displacement

MRR-101:Understanding Development-Caused Displacement

The objective of MRR-101, Understanding Development Caused Displacement, is to provide the historical background and context of resettlement and rehabilitation projects. This is done with references to the impacts of development projects in different parts of India and a few other countries.
a) Block 1: Development and Displacement provides an overall perspective of displacement and deals with the thinking behind development. Beginning with International Scenario in R&R; it leads to the understanding of the impact of displacement on various categories of affected persons leads the way to arguing for minimising displacement. It is evident that the concern here is with planned, often forced, displacement in the name of national development. Since this form of displacement is in essence a planned activity, it should be possible for the project authorities to plan resettlement as well as rehabilitation. In fact, project authorities have a duty to resettle displaced people and ensure their rehabilitation. In reality it is rarely done.
b) Block 2 on Laws related to R&R covers the Land Acquisition Act of 1894 (LA Act), which is the basic Act under which land is acquired for any public purpose. The steps to be taken by the Government to acquire land under the LA Act, its scope and process, as well as implications of the Amendment Act of 1984 are detailed. The Block also describes three other Acts under which land can be acquired for specific purposes like national highways, coal-bearing areas and for conducting military exercises. The variation between these Acts and the Land Acquisition Act are also listed. The other land acquisition acts discussed in the Block are the Wild Life (Projection) Act, 1972, the Indian Forest Act, 1927 and the Indian Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.
c) Block 3 on Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policies discusses on the few rehabilitation policies of the 1990s that give some guidelines for resettlement but are not legally binding. It make a strong case for a national policy on R&R.
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© 2011 Pravin Kolhe
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